Fabric identification method
An easy way to identify the composition of a fabric is the combustion method. The method is to draw a cloth containing warp and weft yarn at the seam edge of the garment, ignite it with fire, observe the state of the burning flame, smell the smell after burning the cloth, and see the remaining matter after burning, thereby judging Whether it matches the fabric component marked on the durability label of the garment to distinguish the authenticity of the fabric component.
First, cotton fiber and hemp fiber cotton fiber and hemp fiber are just near the flame, burning, burning quickly, the flame is yellow, blue smoke. The difference between the odor of burning and the ash after burning is that the cotton burns to emit a paper odor, and the numbness emits a ash ash; after burning, the cotton has very little powder ash, which is black or gray, and the hemp produces a small amount of grayish white ash.
Second, the wool fiber and the silk hair in the fire, the foaming when burning, the burning speed is slow, exudes the burnt smell of burning hair, after burning, the ash is mostly shiny black spherical particles, the finger is crushed. The silk huddled in a fire, and the burning speed was slower, accompanied by a squeaking sound, which gave off the burning smell of the hair. After burning, it formed a dark brown globular ash, and the handcuffs were broken.
Third, nylon and polyester nylon, the name of the polyamide fiber, the near flame is quickly curled into a white gel, melted in the flame and blistering, no flame when burning, leaving the flame difficult to continue burning, exudes celery flavor, The light brown melt is not easily ground after cooling. Polyester fiber name is easy to ignite. It is melted near the flame. When burning, it emits black smoke when it melts. It has a yellow flame and emits an aromatic odor. After burning, the ash is a black-brown hard block, which can be broken with fingers.
4. Acrylic fiber and polypropylene fiber acrylic fiber Polyacrylonitrile fiber, softened and melted near fire, black smoke after the fire, the flame is white, burns quickly after the flame, emits the bitter smell of the fire meat, and the ash is an irregular black block after burning. The handcuffs are fragile. Polypropylene fiber, polypropylene fiber, near the flame is melted, flammable, burning slowly from the fire and black smoke, the upper end of the flame is yellow, the lower end is blue, emitting oily smell, after burning, the ash is hard round light yellow brown granules, hand 捻 easy broken.
V. Vinyl and polyvinyl chloride Vinyl, the name of polyvinyl acetal fiber, is not easy to ignite, and the near flame melts and shrinks. When burning, there is a little flame at the top. When the fiber melts into a gelatinous flame, it has a thick black smoke and a bitter smell. After burning, black bead-like particles are left and can be crushed by fingers. The name of polyvinyl chloride fiber is difficult to burn. It is extinguished when it leaves the fire. The flame is yellow, and the lower end is green and white smoke. It emits pungent and pungent spicy and sour taste. After burning, the ash is dark brown and irregular lumps, and the fingers are not easy to be broken.
Sixth, spandex and fluorocarbon spandex scientific name polyurethane fiber, near the fire side of the edge burning, the flame is blue when burning, leaving the fire to continue to melt, emitting a special irritating odor, after burning, the ash is soft fluffy black gray. Fluorine fiber name polytetrafluoroethylene fiber, ISO organization called it fluorite fiber, near flame only melt, difficult to ignite, not burning, edge flame is blue-green carbonization, melting and decomposition, gas is toxic, the melt is hard round black Beads. Fluorinated fibers are commonly used in the textile industry to make high performance sewing threads.
7. Viscose fiber and copper ammonium fiber Viscose fiber is flammable, burning speed is fast, the flame is yellow, and the smell of burning paper is emitted. After burning, the ash is less, and it is smooth and twisted with light gray or grayish white powder. Copper-ammonium fiber, commonly known as tiger kapok, burns near the flame, burns fast, the flame is yellow, and it smells sour. After burning, there is very little ash, only a small amount of gray-black ash.
1. Pure cotton cloth: The surface of the cloth is soft, soft to the touch, poor in elasticity and easy to wrinkle. After the cloth is squeezed by hand, it is loosened, and the wrinkles are noticeable, and the crease is not easily restored. A few warp and weft yarns were taken from the edge of the cloth and the length of the fibers was different.
2, sticky cotton cloth (including artificial cotton, rich fiber cloth): the surface gloss is soft and bright, bright colors, smooth and smooth, soft to the touch, poor elasticity. After the cloth is squeezed by hand, it is loosened, and the crease is visible, and the crease is not easily restored.
3, polyester cotton cloth: gloss is brighter than pure cotton cloth, the cloth surface is flat, clean without yarn ends or impurities. It feels smooth and crisp, and its elasticity is better than that of pure cotton. After the hand is squeezed, the fabric is loosened, the crease is not obvious, and it is easy to return to its original state.
4, pure wool worsted woolen fabric: the surface of the fabric is smooth and smooth, the texture is fine and clear. The gloss is soft and natural, and the color is pure. Soft and elastic. The surface is pinched by hand, the crease is not obvious, and it can be quickly restored to its original state. Most of the yarn counts are double strands.
5, pure wool woollen wool: the face is full, the texture is tight and thick. The surface has fine fluff, and the texture is generally not revealed. Feel warm, full and flexible. The yarn is mostly a single yarn.
6, wool and polyester blended wool: the appearance of pure wool fabric style. The surface texture is clear, smooth and smooth, and the hand feel is not as soft as the pure wool fabric, which has a stiff and rough feel, and the elasticity is more than the full hair and the woolen woolen cloth. After pinching the face with your hands and releasing it, the crease quickly returns to its original shape.
7, Maoqing blended wool: mostly worsted. Strong hair, wooly style, warmth. The elasticity is not as good as the wool.
8, wool brocade blended wool: the surface is flat, strong hair, the appearance of waxy luster, feels stiff. After the hand is squeezed, the material is loosened and has obvious creases, which can be slowly restored to its original state.
9. True silk: The silk surface is smooth and clean, the gloss is soft, and the color is pure and pure. It feels smooth, soft and light and elegant. In the case of dryness, the hand touches the silk surface with a handle feeling, and there is a "silk sound" when tearing.
10. Viscose silk fabric (human silk): The silk surface is bright but not soft, the color is bright, the hand feels smooth, soft and drape, but it is not as light and elegant as silk. After the hand is squeezed, the surface is loosened, with creases and slower recovery. The voice is hoarse when torn. After the weft and weft yarns are wetted by water, they are easily broken.
A list of the characteristics of several common fiber burning:
Close to the flame, not shrinking or melting. In contact with the flame, it burns quickly, the flame is orange, and there is blue smoke. Leave the flame and continue to burn. The burning paper smells less ash and is linear. The ash is soft and light gray, and the hand touches easily into a powder.
Same as above, the ash is less, light gray, or grayish white, and the hand touches easily into powder.
Close to the flame, the curl does not melt. Touch the flame and burn slowly. Leave the flame and extinguish yourself. The flame is orange and small. Burning the smell of feathers or burning hair, dark brown balls, hand-touched into powder.
Close to the flame, the curl does not melt. Touch the flame, smoke and burn, there are bubbles. Leave the flame and continue to burn. Sometimes it is self-extinguishing and the flame is orange. The smell of burning feathers or burning hair is more ash, forming a lustrous, indefinite black mass, which is easily ash-like.
Close to the flame, burning quickly, orange flame burning paper smell less ash, dark gray or light gray
Close to the flame, first shrink, then melt. Contact with flame, melt combustion. Leave the flame and continue to burn. The flame is yellowish white, bright, and the top line is black smoke. Special aroma, dark brown amorphous lumps or small balls, can be crushed with fingers.
Combustion is one of the commonly used methods for identifying fibers. It uses different fiber burning characteristics to identify fiber types. But only for pure textiles and interwoven products. Not applicable to new blended products, core-spun yarn products and products that have been fire-retarded.
Cotton: burning rapidly in the flame, grayish white smoke;
Hemp: Burning quickly in the flame, taking white smoke;
Hair: Gradually burned, has a hairy taste, and has a crispy black ash after burning;
Polyester: first melted and burned, after burning, there is a glassy dark brown hard ball;
Adhesive: low strength, hardened after launching.